Innovation Ecosystem

In goes the bad air

What happens when an elementary school is inundated with polluted air from a highway in Providence?

Photo by Joanna Detz, ecoRI News

The back of the Vartan Grtegorian Elementary School in Providence borders directly on Route 195.

By Grace Kelly/ecoRI News
Posted 11/11/19
To combat toxic contaminants, including black carbon, inside in its school building, emanating from truck and car traffic on I-195, Vartan Gregorian Elementary School installed two air filtration systems. The current principal of the school, Matthew Russo, said he was unaware of their existence.
When will Commissioner Infante-Green commission a health audit at every single public school building in Providence to be conducted by the R.I. Department of Health? Would the corporate group, Partnership for Rhode Island, be willing to pay for such an audit? If teachers and students are attending classes in sick buildings, what is the appropriate response from the state? What responsibility, if any, does Brown University have to install new air filtration systems at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School, named after a former president at the school? Can the number of chronic school absences by teachers and students be correlated with data from incidences of childhood lead poisoning and asthma?
Like childhood lead poisoning, the harmful health impacts on students and teachers from air pollution continues to be an “under-reported” political story in Rhode Island. On a national level, the continued assault by the Trump administration on existing environmental protections against toxic threats is a much under-reported political story, particularly by Rhode Island news media outlets.
From attempts to rewrite rules and loosen regulations for asbestos and formaldehyde, from cutting back on restrictions on dumping coal ash in waterways to allowing higher concentrations of heavy metals from coal-burning plants, from weakening of standards for toxic pesticides known to cause neurological damage to children to permitting mining operations that will threaten pristine waterways in Alaska and Minnesota, the Trump administration’s playbook seems to be advocacy for poisoning for profit.
Is the failure by local news media to cover these stories a symptom of corporate ownership of TV, radio and newspaper chains? Good question.

Editor’s Note: Here is an in-depth story by Grace Kelly, explaining why it is not always a beautiful day in the neighborhood at Vartan Gregorian because of the persistent, toxic air pollution from the nearby highway.

The story raises excellent questions about how the state of Rhode Island, which is now in charge of the Providence Public School District, will respond to questions about buildings that sicken teaches and students as it develops a comprehensive, turn-around approach to improving educational outcomes.

ConvergenceRI first learned about how an air filtrration system had been installed at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School to protect students and teachers on July 23, in a conversation with parents following the vote by the R.I. Council on Elementary and Secondary Education, at which it voted to endorse the motion by Commissioner Infante-Green to begin the state take over of Providence schools.
[See link below to ConvergenceRI story, “What is the remedy for sick buildings?”]

The story was one of several published by ConvergenceRI that continued to raise questions about health conditions in the classroom, including stories by former Hope High School teacher Betsy Taylor.
[See links below to ConvergenceRI stories, “A teacher speaks her mind” and “What I found in my classroom.”]

Most recently, in the story published in the Oct. 21 edition, “Make Providence schools great again?” ConvergenceRI posed the question: How much of chronic absenteeism by students and teachers related to health conditions, such as air pollution, substandard housing and sick school buildings. “For instance, one elementary school in Providence, Vartan Gregorian, installed an air filtration system because of issues with air pollution that were affecting students and teachers there, apparently related to its proximity to I-195,” the story reported.

Providence, the story continued, “has the highest number of child emergency department visits for children with the primary diagnosis of asthma, with 2,779 between 2013-2017, according to the 2019 Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, with a rate of 13.3 emergency visits per 1,000 children for a diagnosis of asthma.”

Kudos to Grace Kelly on her excellent reporting. Just as most clinicians acknowledge that you cannot separate the head from the body in treating the health of a individual, the new Education Commissioner, Angelica Infante-Green, needs to address the fact that you can’t separate health and housing disparities from students’ readiness to learn, including childhood lead poisoning and toxic air pollution.


PROVIDENCE – The Vartan Gregorian Elementary School sits at the intersection of Wickenden and East streets. [It is named after the former president of Brown University, who became the president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.] It’s close to a café, a doughnut shop, India Point Park, residences, and the bustle of city life. [It sits across the intersection from the bronze statue of entertainer George M. Cohan, who was born in Fox Point.]

[Literally right behind the school] is Interstate 195, and close by is Interstate 95.

“It's at the intersection of two highways. That’s really quite close,” said Gregory Wellenius, director of the Center for Environmental Health and Technology at Brown University. “The last time I looked at the building, the areas where the kids play and have recess, those are actually right adjacent to the highway.”

According to the Center for Public Integrity’s data visualization map of school proximity to highways, the Interstate nearest Vartan Gregorian is used by more than 30,000 cars daily.

That’s a lot of pollution passing by the windows of the elementary school. The vehicles of today, be it a Prius or a Ford F-150, aren’t nearly as clean as we may think.

These vehicles spew a cocktail of particulate matter [such as soot, which is less than a tenth the width of a human hair], volatile organic compounds [which are often carcinogenic and contribute to increased ozone], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide, among other pollutants.

These contaminants are linked to a slew of childhood development issues, ranging from stunted lung growth and worsened asthma symptoms to increased risk of heart disease and cancer to learning disabilities.

“Kids are more vulnerable to air pollution because they tend to spend a lot more time outside than adults. They also breathe much faster,” Wellenius said. “So the impacts of those pollutants can be more pronounced because their lungs are rapidly developing. There’s a lot of evidence that kids being exposed to these high levels of air pollution are having effects on their lung growth. There’s a greater risk of developing asthma, or of asthma worsening.”

High rates of asthma
Rhode Island’s childhood asthma rates are among the highest in the country, a whopping 11 percent. And Vartan Gregorian isn’t the only school right off a major road[way].

Providence alone has 24 schools within 1,000 feet of major roads, including three schools for students with special needs. About 8,000 public schools nationwide lie within 500 feet of highways, truck routes, and other roads with significant traffic, according to a joint investigation by the Center for Public Integrity and Reveal from The Center for Investigative Reporting.

Classical High School is on Westminster Street and a few hundred feet from I-95. With the traffic of these two roads combined, the students there are exposed to the pollution from at least 40,000 cars and 500 trucks every day.

“If you put a school right near a highway, there’s going to be a lot more exposure to pollutants than if that school was farther away,” Wellenius said. “And we’ve seen that within the first 250 meters [820 feet] of a major roadway, there’s substantially elevated pollutants from that traffic. So we really should be building schools at least 500 meters [1,640 feet] away from highways.”

Unacceptable
For Bill Mott, executive director of the Providence-based Ocean Project – and parent to children who attended Vartan Gregorian, this situation is unacceptable.

“After I found out that the school is perched right on the edge of the interstate, I started looking into the literature and saw that best research done is in Southern California,” Mott recalled. “Long Beach had a huge air-quality issue, which caused a huge asthma crisis there. So I looked into it, and found out that in California they don’t allow schools to be built anywhere near interstate highways.”

In 2003, California banned schools from being built within 500 feet of a highway.

Rhode Island technically has restrictions on where schools can be built, with the Rhode Island Department of Education’s School Building Authority construction regulations stating that project sites must have a minimum separation of 1,500 feet “from railroad tracks, hazardous pipelines, and major highways.”

There’s one major problem, however: This relatively new construction clause doesn’t take into account schools that are already built, many of which are well within 1,500 feet of major highways and roads.

In 2011, Mott saw this problem firsthand, when he teamed up with Shae Selix, a senior at Brown University, and Meredith Hastings, an associate professor of Environment and Society, to conduct research into the pollution levels near the Vartan Gregorian Elementary School. What they found was disturbing.

In Selix’s thesis, he reported finding elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide both outside and inside Vartan Gregorian, and the 24-hour outdoor averages were more than seven times higher than the Environmental Protection Agency’s yearly average for Providence in 2011.

Black carbon
Their research also found high amounts of black carbon which, according to the EPA, is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and birth defects.

“They did find black carbon in testing and that led to shutting down the youngest children’s playground, which was immediately near the highway,” Mott said. “The older kids’ playground is farthest away from the highway, which is definitely better, and they planted trees to try and block particulate matter. But that’s a Band-Aid approach, and was really just a way to raise awareness to help parents, teachers, and administrators realize there is an issue here.”

Mott helped secure two advanced air-filtration systems from IQ Air, a Swiss-based company whose products were used by the U.S. track and field team when it participated in the Beijing Olympics. After installing the systems at Vartan Gregorian, Selix’s report found that the average black carbon level inside classrooms was more than 80 percent lower than the outdoor average.

But those air-filtration systems were installed years ago. Mott is concerned that these systems aren’t being used properly now, since new filters cost hundreds of dollars.

“While the machines are great, the filters cost a lot of money,” he said. “And it’s no good if you don’t change them regularly.”

Vartan Gregorian principal Matthew Russo, who began the job this year, was contacted by ecoRI News about the status of the school’s two air purifiers. He said he was unaware of their existence.

Mitigating the problem
While existing schools seem to have little regulation when it comes to air-quality problems caused by nearby roadways, new schools under construction or old ones being renovated do have potential for including improved air-filtration systems.

New schools, [according to] state law, cannot be built within 1,500 feet of a major highway, such as I-95 or I-195.

Even before the damning report on the sorry state of Providence’s pubic schools by a team from John Hopkins University was released in June, city schools and other public school districts have been scrambling to fix a [broken] system.

However, there has been some success.

In 2018, Rhode Island voters approved a $250 million statewide school construction bond, which in turn activated six new temporary bonus incentives. The state’s School Building Authority oversees this program, and a few districts, Barrington and East Providence, have already broken ground – and in Barrington’s case, completed work – on new buildings that include better ventilation systems.

According to a Rhode Island Department of Education 2017 action plan, school projects in Rhode Island must comply with all the requirements set forth in the most recent Northeast Collaborative for High Performance Schools. One of these requirements from the collaborative’s latest version is: “Delivers 100 percent fresh outdoor air directly into each space without first mixing it with any recirculated building air.”

The new Barrington middle school was built with a displacement ventilation system. Dom Puniello, a project manager on the building team, said: “It’s like we take the old approach of supplying air from the ceiling and turn that around. Now we supply it from the floor, and we displace it from the ceiling. Why not get the bad air out at the top, and bring the good air towards the bottom where people are.”

While this system provides clean, cool air, Puniello doesn’t believe it’s a system that can be installed in existing schools.

“It would be nearly impossible, extremely difficult at best” he said. “A lot of the older schools have a low floor-to-ceiling height, and instead of displacing the air it would kind of create a mixed-air system, which is what old schools already have.”

When School Building Authority chief executive officer Christine Lopes Metcalfe was asked about this, she said: “The indoor air-quality requirements include high levels of filtration to be integrated into HVAC [heating, ventilation, and air conditioning] systems, as well as pollutant source control, moisture management, construction, and post-construction indoor air-quality management, and other aspects that impact student and staff health.”

She said that the state would provide funding to projects that integrate these standards into their buildings’ systems. The state, however, will not provide funding for standalone equipment such as an air purifier, she said.

Short-term fixes
Schools such as Vartan Gregorian, instead of getting funding for an interim solution to air-quality concerns while money is raised to build a new school, are forced to live in these antiquated mixed-air atmospheres, or raise the money themselves for a short-term solution.

But an interim solution could be as simple as a high-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter system, according to Wellenius.

“Many of the homes in New England have forced hot air heating and air conditioning, and you can put a HEPA filter on them and that actually reduces pollution inside your house quite a bit, and the same goes for schools,” he said. “Most schools in New England don’t have active ventilation, most often they have windows and sometimes those windows have been sealed shut so that you have no air circulation or ventilation. In those cases, the pollutants inside can build up to higher levels than the outdoor pollutants.”

Grace Kelly is a member of ecoRI News staff. This story is reported with permission of ecoRI News.

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